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Access through innovation: expanding water service delivery through independent network providers
Considerations for practitioners and policymakers
Across these case studies a number of independent network providers were identified and surveyed. Their background, skills and capacity varied widely - from individuals driven to serve their community, to local entrepeneurs new to the water sector, to formal water operators appointed after competitive bidding. Yet all have shown a remarkable ability to adapt to local conditions in order to build up their customer base. The surveys showed them often outperforming larger formal providers in meeting demand for household connections, usually without any external subsidies. This achievement relies significantly on their ability to innovate, using appropriate standards to lower the costs of service delivery. Investment and operational risks are passed through to the user and local relationships built to provide security.